Might not the recourse to social science in this instance represent a kind of empirical overkill? However normal to our time and place, might it not be more than just a bit myopic, obscuring rather than clarifying judgment? While it may have its uses, could it be that survey research in its splendid isolation also possesses a capacity to distract from the otherwise obvious? Might it not be undermining, as social science sometimes does, the ordinary common sense of the matter?

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It can be a very different experience if you are travelling in a foreign country and you find yourself in a crowd moving down the street. You may have trouble figuring out what is happening. Is the crowd just the usual morning rush, or is it a political protest of some kind? Perhaps there was some sort of accident or disaster. Is it safe in this crowd, or should you try to extract yourself? How can you find out what is going on? Although you are in it, you may not feel like you are part of this crowd. You may not know what to do or how to behave.


Researchers should exercise due diligence when using the archive’s computer catalog. A simple keyword search may return thousands of results for documents in the archives. Those researching pre-nineteenth century topics may be disappointed to find that there are very few documents for the early modern period whereas those researching modern topics may be fooled into thinking that that every relevant document is listed. The reality is that even for modern documents, much of the material is uncataloged. Researchers should use the printed catalogs available in the computer reading room in order to determine what part of the archive contains relevant material. They can then request folders (dosyalar) or defters for these sections and go through the documents or entries individually. Researchers focusing on earlier periods will have fewer loose documents (evrak) to consult and may have to rely primarily on defters. The majority of these defters have been digitized, although only superficially cataloged. Date (tarih) parameters on the search software will not return any defter results. Therefore, the relevant section of the archive must be selected and researchers should limit search criteria to key terms when looking for defters.

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By looking at individuals and societies and how they interact through this lens, sociologists are able to examine what influences behaviour, attitudes, and culture. By applying systematic and scientific methods to this process, they try to do so without letting their own biases and preconceived ideas influence their conclusions.


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Library: Within the viewing room, researchers may consult the archive’s library. The library contains around 15,000 volumes, approximately one-third of which are serial journals. The other 10,000 works include the most important reference materials researchers will need, including dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a number of catalogs. The library’s catalog can be accessed through the archive’s website, although, as there is no internet access at on site, researchers will not have access to this catalog while working at the archive. Researchers may browse the library’s shelves or ask the staff to help locate particular volumes.

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During my years at Vassar, however, there was no hiding from political issues. Well-informed, passionate students conversed about apartheid outside classes and staged demonstrations near the dining hall. Students engaged intensely with one another and professors. Courses forced us to seek out quiet spaces in the library where we struggled to master content that was opening us to new perspectives on the world.


Emile Durkheim, one of the founders of modern sociology, wrote in 1894: "Crime is normal because a society which would be free from it is entirely impossible". For Durkheim, crime is not only inevitable in any human group, but it turns out to be necessary. Indeed, offense calls for sanctions and the existence of sanctions - the punishment of the culprit - reassures individuals who feel protected, which strengthens the cohesion of the group.

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Crimes against peace, known as crimes of aggression since 2021, are committed by individuals or states which prepare and launch an armed aggression against the sovereignty, territorial integrity, or independence of a state. These acts constitute manifest violations of the Charter of the United Nations.

The function of justice is to judge according to the rules of law. It is present in all organized societies according to the Latin adage, Ubi societa ibi jus (Where there is society, there is law). Laws draw on a variety of sources. There are countries of customary law, the best examples of which are Mongolia and Sri Lanka, but customary law is increasingly giving way to non-customary law. The countries of Koranic law apply the rules of Islam. Some of these countries combine prescriptions of religious origin with principles derived from the laws of former Western colonizers, which leads to mixed systems. The so-called civil law countries of Roman origin apply codes defined by individuals and groups in authority over time.


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The new location of the archives is also largely devoid of food options. Researchers will find lunch offered in the archive’s cafeteria (yemekhane) between 12:00-13:00. The lunch, offered to all of the employees of the archive administration, costs 5 TL for visitors and consists of a soup, main dish, and side dish. Although the lunch is healthy and sufficient, vegetarians and people with other dietary restrictions may have trouble with the cafeteria’s offerings on most days. In addition to the cafeteria, there is also a cafe in the lobby of the main research building. In addition to coffee and tea, researchers will find a variety of packaged snacks, as well as a few baked goods in the morning (simit and poğaca).

In the 13th century, Ma Tuan-Lin, a Chinese historian, first recognized social dynamics as an underlying component of historical development in his seminal encyclopedia, General Study of Literary Remains. The study charted the historical development of Chinese state administration from antiquity in a manner very similar to contemporary institutional analyses. The next century saw the emergence of the historian some consider to be the world’s first sociologist, the Berber scholar Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) of Tunisia. His Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History is known for going beyond descriptive history to an analysis of historical processes of change based on his insights into “the nature of things which are born of civilization” (Khaldun quoted in Becker and Barnes, 1961). Key to his analysis was the distinction between the sedentary life of cities and the nomadic life of pastoral peoples like the Bedouin and Berbers. The nomads, who exist independent of external authority, developed a social bond based on blood lineage and “esprit de corps” (‘Asabijja), which enabled them to mobilize quickly and act in a unified and concerted manner in response to the rugged circumstances of desert life. The sedentaries of the city entered into a different cycle in which esprit de corps is subsumed to institutional power and the intrigues of political factions. The need to be focused on subsistence is replaced by a trend toward increasing luxury, ease, and refinements of taste. The relationship between the two poles of existence, nomadism and sedentary life, was at the basis of the development and decay of civilizations (Becker and Barnes, 1961).


When Bernard Blishen picked up the phone one day in 1961, he was surprised to hear Chief Justice Emmett Hall on the other end of the line asking him to be the research director for the newly established Royal Commission on Health Services. Publically funded health care had been introduced for the first time in Canada that year, by a socialist Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) government in Saskatchewan, amid bitter controversy. Doctors in Saskatchewan went on strike and private health care insurers mounted an expensive anti-public health care campaign. Because it was a Conservative government commission, appointed by Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, Blishen’s colleagues advised him that it was going to be a whitewash document to defend the interests of private medical care. However, Blishen took on the project as a challenge, and when the commission’s report was published it advocated that the Saskatchewan plan be adopted nationally (Vaughan, 2004).

Sexual delinquency refers to behavior that deviates from the norm: exhibitionism, rape, abuse of children and non-consenting people, and homosexuality in countries where this type of relationship is penalized. Prostitution is generally placed in this category.


The rule of empiricism: We can only know about things that are actually given in experience. We cannot validly make claims about things that are invisible, unobservable, or supersensible like metaphysical, spiritual, or moral truths.

PICARD Nicolas, Le Châtiment suprême. L’application de la peine de mort en France (1906-1981), Institut universitaire Varenne, Paris, 2021.


In a similar fashion, it is very difficult to get at the historical context or the relations of power that structure or condition face-to-face, symbolic interactions. The perspective on social life as a spontaneous, unstructured and unconstrained domain of agency and subjective meanings has difficulty accounting for the ways that social life does become structured and constrained. The emphasis on face-to-face processes of communication and the emergent or spontaneous qualities of social situations is unable to account for the reproduction of large-scale power relations and structures. Starting from a micro-level analysis, it is difficult to explain how the millions of ongoing symbolic interactions take on particular institutional forms or are subject to historical transformations.

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The origins of crime appear obscure and controversial. In the 18th century, for Jean-Jacques Rousseau, man is naturally good, but he is corrupted by life in society, more precisely by self-centeredness, which stimulates competition between individuals and which therefore provokes conflicts. But, in the 19th century, some theorists believed in the existence of innate tendencies toward delinquency and crime, which amounted to invoking a kind of social determinism.

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The indispensable guide provides a nearly complete listing for most of the Ottoman archive’s collections

Since mathematics and statistical operations are the main forms of logical demonstration in the natural scientific explanation, positivism relies on translating human phenomena into quantifiable units of measurement. It regards the social world as an objective or “positive” reality, in no essential respects different from the natural world. Positivism is oriented to developing a knowledge useful for controlling or administering social life, which explains its ties to the projects of social engineering going back to Comte’s original vision for sociology. Two forms of positivism have been dominant in sociology since the 1940s: quantitative sociology and structural functionalism.

Each class depends on the other for its existence, but their interests are fundamentally irreconcilable and therefore the relationship is fraught with tension and conflict. Social tensions and contradictions in society may simmer or they may erupt in struggle, but in either case it is not possible to study social processes as if they were independent of the historical formations of power that both structure them and destabilize them.


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Whereas critical sociologists often criticize positivist and interpretive sociology for their conservative biases, the reverse is also true. In part the issue is about whether sociology can be “objective,” or value-neutral, or not. However, at a deeper level the criticism is often aimed at the radical nature of critical analyses. Marx’s critique of capitalism and the feminist critique of patriarchy for example lead to very interesting insights into how structures of power and inequality work, but from a point of view that sees only the most revolutionary transformation of society as a solution.

In a similar way, historical materialism analyzes the constraints that define the way individuals review their options and make their decisions in present-day society. From the types of career to pursue to the number of children to have, the decisions and practices of everyday life must be understood in terms of the 20th century shift to corporate ownership and the 21st century context of globalization in which corporate decisions about investments are made.


Ideology and the development of sociological theory. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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The question of delinquency, in the most general sense of the term, is particularly complex because criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, psychoanalysts, doctors, lawyers, and historians who have studied this subject extensively have often expressed very different and even contradictory opinions. Difficulties arise as soon as the phenomenon is to be defined. In French law, the word “delinquency” designates all types of offenses. These fall into three categories: transgressions; which constitute very light offenses, crimes which are at an intermediate level, and crimes among including murders, non-premeditated voluntary homicides, and the assassinations, premeditated voluntary homicides. In recent years, in many countries, rape has entered this category of crimes. The Arabic language differentiates between delinquency (“inhiraf”) which designates minor crimes and the crime (“jarima”) which applies to the most serious crimes and offenses. According to Ibn-Mandhour, the word "jurm" means an offense ("jinayà"), a sin ("dhenb"), a crime ("jarimà"), or disbelief ("kufr"). The term "inhiraf" roughly refers to misconduct; it is the opposite of honesty or righteousness. In everyday English, the word “crime” generally covers all offenses. However, in some countries of Anglo-Saxon culture, the word “felony” is used to describe a serious offense punishable by imprisonment, and the word “misdemeanor” for a minor offense, in principle subject to financial punishment.


At Transylvania, I regularly see students undergoing the same transformations. True to the liberal arts experience, our campus is a sacred space of learning, inquiry and student development. We are guided by the search for knowledge and truth. Students and faculty members work together in small classes combing carefully through texts, conducting research projects and conversing about life after college. These experiences bring a satisfaction that is distinct to college campuses. A quick glance at the accomplishments of Transylvania graduates indicates that our work is done well.

Sociologists study all aspects and levels of society. A society is a group of people whose members interact, reside in a definable area, and share a culture. A culture includes the group’s shared practices, values, beliefs, norms, and artifacts. One sociologist might analyze video of people from different societies as they carry on everyday conversations to study the rules of polite conversation from different world cultures. Another sociologist might interview a representative sample of people to see how email and instant messaging have changed the way organizations are run. Yet another sociologist might study how migration determined the way in which language spread and changed over time. A fourth sociologist might study the history of international agencies like the United Nations or the International Monetary Fund to examine how the globe became divided into a First World and a Third World after the end of the colonial era.


The study of crime with respect to the age of offenders also raises many questions. In general, it seems that the peak of deviance is between 20 and 30 years, then decreases with age. The entry into working life, marriage, the arrival of children, and the increase in responsibilities seem to explain the decline. Some studies suggest that many adult offenders committed their first crimes before the age of 18. However, in the area of age, one must also observe great caution and beware of determinisms.

Macro-level theories, such as structural functionalism and conflict theory, attempt to explain how societies operate as a whole. Micro-level theories, such as symbolic interactionism, focus on interactions between individuals.


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Positivism in social theory and research. New York: St. Martin’s Press.


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La bonté naturelle de l’homme, Belin, Paris 1998. Starobinski Jean, Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Discours sur l’inégalité parmi les hommes, Gallimard, Paris, 2021.

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Another noted structural functionalist, Robert Merton (1910–2003), pointed out that social processes can have more than one function. Manifest functions are the consequences of a social process that are sought or anticipated, while latent functions are the unsought consequences of a social process. A manifest function of college education, for example, includes gaining knowledge, preparing for a career, and finding a good job that utilizes that education. Latent functions of your college years include meeting new people, participating in extracurricular activities, or even finding a spouse or partner. Another latent function of education is creating a hierarchy of employment based on the level of education attained. Latent functions can be beneficial, neutral, or harmful. Social processes that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society are called dysfunctions. In education, examples of dysfunction include getting bad grades, truancy, dropping out, not graduating, and not finding suitable employment.


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The actions of the young skateboarders can be explained because they hold the experienced boarders in esteem and attempt to emulate their skills, even if it means scraping their bodies on hard concrete from time to time. Weber and other like-minded sociologists founded interpretive sociology whereby social researchers strive to find systematic means to interpret and describe the subjective meanings behind social processes, cultural norms, and societal values. This approach led to research methods like ethnography, participant observation, and phenomenological analysis. Their aim was not to generalize or predict (as in positivistic social science), but to systematically gain an in-depth understanding of social worlds. The natural sciences may be precise, but from the interpretive sociology point of view their methods confine them to study only the external characteristics of things.

Harriet Martineau (1802–1876) was one of the first women sociologists in the 19th century. There are a number of other women who might compete with her for the title of the first woman sociologist, such as Catherine Macaulay, Mary Wollstonecraft, Flora Tristan, and Beatrice Webb, but Martineau’s specifically sociological credentials are strong. She was for a long time known principally for her English translation of Comte’s Course in Positive Philosophy. Through this popular translation she introduced the concept of sociology as a methodologically rigorous discipline to an English-speaking audience. But she also created a body of her own work in the tradition of the great social reform movements of the 19th century, and introduced a sorely missing woman’s perspective into the discourse on society.


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The social cage: Human nature and the evolution of society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Sociology is the systematic study of society and social interaction. In order to carry out their studies, sociologists identify cultural patterns and social forces and determine how they affect individuals and groups. They also develop ways to apply their findings to the real world.


Studies of the sex of offenders raise more questions than they answer. The only certainty is that women commit far fewer crimes than men, even though an increase in crimes by women is appearing today in some countries.

All women should inform themselves of the condition of their sex, and of their own position. It must necessarily follow that the noblest of them will, sooner or later, put forth a moral power which shall prostrate cant [hypocrisy], and burst asunder the bonds (silken to some but cold iron to others) of feudal prejudice and usages. In the meantime is it to be understood that the principles of the Declaration of Independence bear no relation to half of the human race? If so, what is the ground of this limitation?


Organized crime in the caterogy of ordinary crimes is committed by structured groups which commit serious crimes. These groups often have names such as: “Mafia” in Italy, “Cartel” in Mexico and Colombia, “Tongs” in China, “Yakuzas” in Japan. Their illegal activities involve the trafficking of drugs, weapons, counterfeit money, and human beings. Their objectives are the control of vast territories and achieving monopolies in certain areas of crime. Their methods involve violence and corrupting the administrative and political apparatus. With the gains proving to be significant, the groups are seeking tax havens and facilities for money laundering.

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From January to August, the Israeli Federation of Sao Paulo recorded 194 incidents of anti-Semitism in the country in its 2021 Anti-Semitism Report. From January to November 2021, the federation recorded 46 incidents. The report was based on empirical (learn more) data with incidents coming from a range of sources, including traditional media, social media, and reports from other branch offices of the organization. The survey (click over here now) reported sightings of swastikas and other anti-Semitic graffiti.


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For example, the self-immolation of the street vender Mohamed Bouazizi in 2021 lead to the Tunisian revolution of 2021 because it “crystallized” the multitude of everyday incidences in which people endured the effects of high unemployment, government corruption, poor living conditions, and a lack of rights and freedoms. It is not possible to examine quantitative changes independently of the qualitative transformations they produce, and vice versa.


Even within one type of crowd, different groups exist and different behaviours are on display. At a rock concert, for example, some may enjoy singing along, others may prefer to sit and observe, while still others may join in a mosh pit or try crowd-surfing. On February 28, 2021, Sydney Crosby scored the winning goal against the United States team in the gold medal hockey game at the Vancouver Winter Olympics. Two hundred thousand jubilant people filled the streets of downtown Vancouver to celebrate and cap off two weeks of uncharacteristically vibrant, joyful street life in Vancouver. Just over a year later, on June 15, 2021, the Vancouver Canucks lost the seventh hockey game of the Stanley Cup finals against the Boston Bruins. One hundred thousand people had been watching the game on outdoor screens. Eventually 155,000 people filled the downtown streets. Rioting and looting led to hundreds of injuries, burnt cars, trashed storefronts and property damage totaling an estimated $4/2 million. Why was the crowd response to the two events so different?

Social scientists who apply symbolic-interactionist thinking look for patterns of interaction between individuals. Their studies often involve observation of one-on-one interactions. For example, Howard Becker’s (1953) argued in his classic study of marijuana users that the effects of marijuana have less to do with its physiological qualities in the body than with the process of communication (or symbolic interaction) about the effects.


I was raised in the Bronx by Irish Catholic immigrants. Our Catholicism was quiet, expressed mostly by giving neighbors a hand, weekly Mass and private guilt. We had little time to follow the political issues of the day, and the internet did not yet exist.

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Crimes linked to imperialism and colonial expansion stem from the will of certain states to dominate others. The native peoples of America, Africa and Asia have been more or less decimated by the wars of conquest. Oppressed peoples have often been driven to revolt and violence. Imperialism, backed by ideologies - capitalism or communism - has created many hotbeds of war around the world, such as in Angola and Mozambique.


Inefficiency in raw material supplies of Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Nigeria has led to inefficient use of production time, labour and other resources due to delays or incessant short down and interruptions during production. This has become inherent part of operations in many manufacturing organizations, which has often led to inability to meet customers’ order and eventual loss of market shares. Therefore, this study empirically looked at the effect of raw material supplies on the performance of Small and Medium Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria. The survey research design method was adopted with a sample size of 148 firms from the population of 283 small and medium manufacturing firms. The proportionate stratified random sampling was used to select samples from each of the manufacturing sub-sectors. Structured questionnaire were distributed to each of the selected small and medium manufacturing firms. The data from the questionnaires were analysed, using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The findings showed that raw material supplies have positive and direct relationship on the performance of the studied Small and Medium Manufacturing Firms. Therefore, Small and Medium Scale manufacturing Firms in Nigeria while locating their plant must ensure that the factor of closeness to raw materials is taken as a prime consideration above personal, political and tribal considerations.

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This is clearly a case in which the situation of the incarcerated inmates interviewed on the CBC program has been structured by historical social patterns and power relationships that confront Aboriginal people in Canada generally. How do we understand it at the individual level, however — at the level of personal decision making and individual responsibilities? One young inmate described how, at the age of 13, he began to hang around with his cousins who were part of a gang. He had not grown up with “the best life”; he had family members suffering from addiction issues and traumas. The appeal of what appeared as a fast and exciting lifestyle — the sense of freedom and of being able to make one’s own life, instead of enduring poverty — was compelling. He began to earn money by “running dope” but also began to develop addictions. He was expelled from school for recruiting gang members. The only job he ever had was selling drugs. The circumstances in which he and the other inmates had entered the gang life, and the difficulties getting out of it they knew awaited them when they left prison, reflect a set of decision-making parameters fundamentally different than those facing most non-Aboriginal people in Canada.


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Inequality between the genders is a phenomenon that goes back at least 4,000 years (Lerner, 1986). Although the forms and ways in which it has been practised differ between cultures and change significantly through history, its persistence has led to the formulation of the concept of patriarchy. Patriarchy refers to a set of institutional structures (like property rights, access to positions of power, relationship to sources of income) that are based on the belief that men and women are dichotomous and unequal categories.

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SCHOR Ralph, Histoire de l’immigration en France, Colin, Paris, 1996. MUCCHIELI Laurent « Délinquance et immigration. Le sociologue face au sens commun », Hommes et Migrations, n° 1241, 2003.

Since these early efforts, the archive’s staff has largely endeavored to sort and classify documents according to the departments and offices in which they were initially produced. In addition to this work, the archive staff formed a number of special categories which isolate documents according to type; most imperial writs (hatt-ı hümayun), decrees (irade), and charitable foundation records (vakıf) are cataloged in this way. Beginning with the reforms of the Tanzimat period, the breadth and depth of Ottoman administration increased exponentially. This bureaucratic development led to the creation of numerous central and provincial administrative authorities and offices all of which produced their own records.


Much of what is referred to today as quantitative sociology fits within this paradigm of positivism. Quantitative sociology uses statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants to quantify relationships between social variables. In line with the “unity of the scientific method” rule, quantitative sociologists argue that the elements of human life can be measured and quantified — described in numerical terms — in essentially the same way that natural scientists measure and quantify the natural world in physics, biology, or chemistry. Researchers analyze this data using statistical techniques to see if they can uncover patterns or “laws” of human behaviour.

What was distinct about human behaviour was that it is essentially meaningful. Human behaviour could not be understood independently of the meanings that individuals attributed to it. A Martian’s analysis of the activities in a skateboard park would be hopelessly confused unless it understood that the skateboarders were motivated by the excitement of taking risks and the pleasure in developing skills. This insight into the meaningful nature of human behaviour even applied to the sociologists themselves, who, they believed, should be aware of how their own cultural biases could influence their research. To deal with this problem, Weber and Dilthey introduced the concept of Verstehen, a German word that means to understand from a subject’s point of view. In seeking Verstehen, outside observers of a social world — an entire culture or a small setting — attempt to understand it empathetically from an insider’s point of view.


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Dorothy Smith’s development of standpoint theory was a key innovation in sociology that enabled these issues to be seen and addressed in a systematic way (Smith, 1977). She recognized from the consciousness-raising exercises and encounter groups initiated by feminists in the 1960s and 1970s that many of the immediate concerns expressed by women about their personal lives had a commonality of themes. These themes were nevertheless difficult to articulate in sociological terms let alone in the language of politics or law.

In this respect, society is like a body that relies on different organs to perform crucial functions. He argued that just as the various organs in the body work together to keep the entire system functioning and regulated, the various parts of society work together to keep the entire society functioning and regulated. By “parts of society,” Spencer was referring to such social institutions as the economy, political systems, health care, education, media, and religion.


Émile Durkheim (1858–1917) helped establish sociology as a formal academic discipline by establishing the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895, and by publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method in 1895. He was born to a Jewish family in the Lorraine province of France (one of the two provinces, along with Alsace, that were lost to the Germans in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871). With the German occupation of Lorraine, the Jewish community suddenly became subject to sporadic anti-Semitic violence, with the Jews often being blamed for the French defeat and the economic/political instability that followed. Durkheim attributed this strange experience of anti-Semitism and scapegoating to the lack of moral purpose in modern society.

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Specialists distinguish many other kinds of special offenses. Complex crimes result from the combination of several unlawful acts of different kinds committed simultaneously or over time, such as theft followed by concealment, or serial crimes. The offense of recklessness results from negligence which is not necessarily deliberate. The offense of omission or inaction is attributable to an individual who refrains from reporting an illegal act or rescuing a person in danger.


Environmental crimes are becoming punished with increasing severity. These include illegal fishing activities, trafficking in protected animal and plant species, illegal exports of exotic lumber, clandestine gold panning, unauthorized subdivision on restricted land, water diversions, etc. The fight against these crimes is increasingly taking on an international dimension, spurred on by Interpol and various NGOs. In September 2021, a World Conference on Forest Crime was held in Lyon.

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Juvenile delinquency refers to the illegal behavior of children or adolescents. In most countries, this type of crime is subject to special judicial procedures. Young offenders most often engage in theft, drug trafficking, vandalism such as setting fires in garbage and automobiles. Nowadays young people increasingly engage in urban violence, especially in slums and poor suburbs. Feeling that they are disadvantaged or are the victims of police violence or racism, they get carried away and engage in angry collective outbursts during which they attack public buildings, goods or urban transport, the police and firefighters.


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For a detailed explanation of the archive’s collections, we suggest researchers consult Osmanlı Arşivi Rehberi, an electronic copy of which may be downloaded at Archive Directorate’s website (see below). The indispensable guide provides a nearly complete listing for most of the Ottoman archive’s collections.

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Cybercrime constitutes a new form of crime which, located in a virtual space, relies on computer resources. There is increasing frequency of data theft, online scams and blackmail, bank credit card fraud, identity theft, child pornography, and incitement to terrorism and racial hatred (“hate crimes”). In 2001, an International Convention on Cybercrime was held in Budapest.


It was a testament to her abilities that after she became impoverished at the age of 24 with the death of her father, brother, and fiancé, she was able to earn her own income as the first woman journalist in Britain to write under her own name. From the age of 12, she suffered from severe hearing loss and was obliged to use a large ear trumpet to converse. She impressed a wide audience with a series of articles on political economy in 1832. In 1834 she left England to engage in two years of study of the new republic of the United States and its emerging institutions: prisons, insane asylums, factories, farms, Southern plantations, universities, hospitals, and churches. On the basis of extensive research, interviews, and observations, she published Society in America and worked with abolitionists on the social reform of slavery (Zeitlin, 1997). She also worked for social reform in the situation of women: the right to vote, have an education, pursue an occupation, and enjoy the same legal rights as men. Together with Florence Nightingale, she worked on the development of public health care, which led to early formulations of the welfare system in Britain (McDonald, 1998).

The term sociology was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836) in an unpublished manuscript (Fauré et al, 1999). In 1838, the term was reinvented by Auguste Comte (1798–1857). The contradictions of Comte’s life and the times he lived through can be in large part read into the concerns that led to his development of sociology. He was born in 1798, year 6 of the new French Republic, to staunch monarchist and Catholic parents. They lived comfortably off his father’s earnings as a minor bureaucrat in the tax office. Comte originally studied to be an engineer, but after rejecting his parents’ conservative, monarchist views, he declared himself a republican and free spirit at the age of 13 and was eventually kicked out of school at 18 for leading a school riot. This ended his chances of getting a formal education and a position as an academic or government official.


Criminals and the police who track them have inspired artists. In painting, Caravagio often portrayed "bad boys" as in Les Tricheurs (1594). The same goes for Georges de La Tour with Le Tricheur à l'as de carreau (1636-1638). Many painters painted prostitutes, such as Holbein (Laïs de Corinthe, 1526), Vermeer (L'Entremetteuse, 1656), Manet (Olympia, 1863), and Picasso, who perhaps left the most famous painting on this subject with Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907). Rembrandt, for his part, painted the portrait of the members of a bourgeois militia in La Ronde de nuit (1642).

Evaluation and methodological issues raised with regard to survey materials collected by social (hop over to this site) science data archives have equal relevance to the collection and use of primary materials. Therefore, the research and methodological efforts encouraged by the development of archives benefit a wide range of social science research concerns. By the very fact of raising these issues, a general distinction can be drawn between the two topics discussed in this review—abstracting services and social science data archives. On the one hand, abstracting services facilitate the research and teaching efforts of scholars by providing them with descriptive information on what scholars have done and are doing. On the other hand, while sharing many of the same organizational problems encountered by abstracting services, social science data archives provide more than information on what has been done: they actually provide the basic raw materials used by other researchers. Because they are concerned with data rather than with information only, they must often concern themselves with an entirely different range of issues, namely, how these materials can be used, what their limitations are, and what contributions they might make to the development of a social science based on firm empirical foundations.


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The Ottoman archives are located in the Sadabad neighborhood of Kağıthane municipality. This new archives building, officially opened in June 2021, is less accessible from many parts of Istanbul than the old archive site in Gülhane. The new archive facility is spacious and well organized, but its placement in Sadabad limits its accessibility via public transportation to a handful of bus lines. Travelers coming from Taksim may reach the archives using bus line 48T (Hamidiye Mah -Taksim) which departs from Taksim. We advise travelers who plan to take this line to depart before 9:30. After this time the frequency of this line diminishes significantly. The fastest way for researchers coming from the Anatolian side to reach the archive is via the Metrobus with a transfer to the 49 or 49N at the Taşıtlar bus stop located next to the Mecidiyeköy Metrobus stop. Both of these bus lines also pass through the middle of Şişli. There are also minibuses that frequently pass the archives, often going to Şişli, 4. Levent, Topkapı (the neighborhood, not the palace), and other locations.

The chalice is at the center of Catholic religious ritual and practice. In what way is it an example of a social fact?


As in Comte’s time, France in the late 19th century was the site of major upheavals and sharp political divisions: the loss of the Franco-Prussian War, the Paris Commune (1871) in which 20,000 workers died, the fall and capture of Emperor Napoleon III (Napoleon I’s nephew), the creation of the Third Republic, and the Dreyfus Affair. This undoubtedly led to the focus in Durkheim’s sociology on themes of moral anarchy, decadence, disunity, and disorganization. For Durkheim, sociology was a scientific but also a “moral calling” and one of the central tasks of the sociologist was to determine “the causes of the general temporary maladjustment being undergone by European societies and remedies which may relieve it” (1897/1951). In this respect, Durkheim represented the sociologist as a kind of medical doctor, studying social pathologies of the moral order and proposing social remedies and cures. He saw healthy societies as stable, while pathological societies experienced a breakdown in social norms between individuals and society. He described this breakdown as a state of normlessness or anomie — a lack of norms that give clear direction and purpose to individual actions. As he put it, anomie was the result of “society’s insufficient presence in individuals” (1897/1951).

Last weekend, I had the privilege of returning to my alma mater for the inauguration of Elizabeth H. Bradley, the 11th president of Vassar College. Returning to Vassar as the president of Transylvania University felt different from my arrival as a student in 1984.


These examples illustrate the ways in which society and culture can be studied at different levels of analysis, from the detailed study of face-to-face interactions to the examination of large-scale historical processes affecting entire civilizations. It is common to divide these levels of analysis into different gradations based on the scale of interaction involved. As discussed in later chapters, sociologists break the study of society down into four separate levels of analysis: micro, meso, macro, and global. The basic distinctions, however, are between micro-level sociology, macro-level sociology and global-level sociology.

Blishen went on to work in the field of medical sociology and also created a widely-used index to measure socioeconomic status known as the Blishen scale. He received the Order of Canada in 2021 in recognition of his contributions to the creation of public health care in Canada.


Education is a fundamentally optimistic endeavor. At its core, it is fueled by the joy of discovery, understanding and self-transcendence. It is fueled by the belief in its power to transform lives. It is fueled by the excitement of exploration. It is a sacred endeavor that is best done collaboratively in accordance with norms and rules and cultivates the best in human beings. Today, it faces unprecedented challenges in the lawlessness that pervades the digital world.

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You cheer and applaud when everyone else does. You boo and yell alongside them. You move out of the way when someone needs to get by, and you say “excuse me” when you need to leave. You know how to behave in this kind of crowd.


Pollan argues that obesity is in part a product of the increasingly sedentary and stressful lifestyle of modern, capitalist society. More importantly, however, it is a product of the industrialization of the food chain, which since the 1970s has produced increasingly cheap and abundant food with significantly more calories due to processing. Additives like corn syrup, which are much cheaper and therefore more profitable to produce than natural sugars, led to the trend of super-sized fast foods and soft drinks in the 1980s. As Pollan argues, trying to find a processed food in the supermarket without a cheap, calorie-rich, corn-based additive is a challenge. The sociological imagination in this example is the capacity to see the private troubles and attitudes associated with being overweight as an issue of how the industrialization of the food chain has altered the human/environment relationship — in particular, with respect to the types of food we eat and the way we eat them.