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FIGURE 13. The ultimate success in modeling human disease with rodents depends on determining similarities among the medial surfaces of rat and different primate species. Here the cingulate areas in rat and monkey are outlined in photographs at the same magnification. In the monkey the cingulate sulcus was separated (double arrow) to expose the depths of the cingulate sulcus. The splenium of the corpus callosum was also warped ventral from the point marked with small dots so the depths of the callosal sulcus can be appreciated. Area 25 in both species is shadowed as are areas 29 and 30 in both species. Although similar cortical regions are smaller in rat, the pericallosal areas in monkey are shown: areas 25, 32, 24a/b, 24a′/b′, 29a-c, and 30. The two regions that do not appear to have counterparts in the rat include monkey areas in the cingulate sulcus (24c, 24c′, 24d) and on the posterior cingulate gyrus (23, 31). The greatest similarity between rat and monkey is in the structure of the pericallosal areas.


Most of these projections have been reported in several species (for review, cf. Shipley and Adamek, 1984). A direct MOB projection to the supraoptic nucleus has also been reported (Smithson et al, 1989). The organization of these projections is discussed below in the section on the primary olfactory cortex.

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These brain regions are collectively known as the primary olfactory cortex (POC). Although our understanding of the peripheral mechanisms involved in olfaction is increasing rapidly, our knowledge of the functions of the various primary olfactory cortical regions is rudimentary. It is beyond the scope of this entry to discuss all the primary olfactory cortical regions in detail.


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Horizontal section through the anterior cingulate and rostrally adjoining regions showing the transition from allo- to neocortex. The supracommissural hippocampus IGr (indusium griseum) is bordered by the periarchitectonical area 33 (IRv, area infraradiata ventralis). The adjacent area 24 can be subdivided into a proisocortical part (IRd, area infraradiatadorsalis) and an isocortical part (MR, area mediorata).

Glia within the indusium griseum develop immediately dorsal to the developing corpus callosum

The indusium griseum (IG) is positioned dorsal to the corpus callosum and comprises glia and neurons. The glial wedge (GW) consists of glia that arise from the medial ventricular zones and extend processes toward the midline, providing the ventral boundary to the corpus callosum. The subcallosal sling (SCS) is a predominantly neuronal population containing some glia that forms a characteristic U-shape ventral to the developing corpus callosum. The midline is also populated with a population of GABAergic neurons during midline crossing. Gradients of diffusible axon guidance molecules and cell contact guidance cues that are expressed by these cellular populations must first attract/repel callosal axons toward the midline, and then into the contralateral cortex after midline crossing.


The indusium griseum is positioned dorsal to the corpus callosum and comprises glia and neurons

Altered FGF signaling (increased levels FGF8 and phosphorylated ERK1/2) downstream of GLI family zinc finger 3 (GLI3) also results in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive glia spanning the entire cingulate cortex, and absence of the indusium griseum glia. Gli3 mutant mice also show expanded expression of the repulsive axon guidance ligand Slit homolog (Slit) 2 into the dorsomedial cortex and ectopically in the septum (Magnani et al, 2021; Amaniti et al, 2021, 2021). Similarly, conditional loss of the tumor suppressor Neurofibromatosis 2 (Nf2) in the cortex results in a similar glial phenotype, with upregulation of SLIT2 and an increase in glia that extend their processes to the pia and cross the callosal axon path (Lavado et al, 2021). Deleting one copy of Slit2 restores callosal formation in Nf2 mouse mutants, suggesting that ectopic SLIT2 expression is preventing callosal crossing in these mice. These findings highlight the importance of correct development of guidepost neurons and disruption to genes involved in glial development associated with AgCC in humans (Edwards et al, 2021).

The largest part of the cingulate gyrus is architectonically iso- and proisocortex. The periarchicortical region of the cingulate region accompanies the supracommissural and precommissural hippocampus.


Garel distinguished between the anterior and posterior portions of the superior temporal sulcus. We found that the anterior portion can be located with greater certainty, so we discuss the anterior portion of the superior temporal sulcus and the inferior temporal sulcus only. The coronal plane is required to assess both of these sulci, which appear to show much greater variation than the structures listed earlier. Neither is routinely seen before 27 weeks, but both are consistently seen after 33 weeks. Garel showed that more than 50% of fetuses had definable superior temporal sulci by 31 weeks and inferior temporal sulci by 30 weeks.

This figure presents three size classes of neurons for areas in the rostral cingulate sulcus (area a24c′) on the ventral bank (vb) and dorsal bank (db) in the top plate and in the caudal cingulate sulcus area 24d in the bottom plate. This approach to analyzing neuron populations suggests further structural differences within these areas.


One of the reasons for employing a modification of Brodmann's original scheme for rodent and primate species is to assure that direct comparisons can be made among species and support a rational process for devising models of human disease. This type of analysis does not presume evolutionary or developmental relationships, although homologies may exist. Rather, it states that areas on the medial surface in all mammalian species undergo a series of architectural transitions and that each area evaluated in this context provides for a direct comparison and areas with the same relative position may be similar among species. Demonstration of similarities between areas in different species and use of a common nomenclature does not imply that two areas with the same designation are exactly equivalent, only that they share enough similarity to explore common mechanisms of disease. Here we consider relations between rat and rhesus monkey.

The relatively simple subdivision of the cingulate cortex into an anterior and posterior subregion is, however, an oversimplification of both the structure and the function of this region. Already Brodmann (1909) had mentioned that his subregio praecingularis is not homogeneous and must be further subdivided (see also Braak, 1976a; Vogt and Pandya, 1987; Vogt et al, 2005). Vogt and Vogt (2003) identified two qualitatively distinct regions of the subregio praecingularis: the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the midcingulate cortex (MCC). MCC is characterized by large neurons in layer IIIc and the presence of large layer Vb pyramidal neurons that are not found in other parts of the cingulate cortex.


For the corpus callosum to form correctly, distinct midline glial populations must be generated in the correct proportions and position in order for the midline crossing of callosal axons to occur (Figure 14/5B; Gobius and Richards, 2021). The glial wedge and indusium griseum glia must first correctly differentiate from radial glia within the ventricular zone of the medial cortex and then mature morphologically. These glial populations are some of the first glia to differentiate in the forebrain, as the majority of astrocytes are generated postnatally in the cerebral cortex. Several morphogens, transcription factors, and enzymes are required to produce the glial populations of the cerebral midline, and these are briefly reviewed below.

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The postcingulate cortex PCC comprises areas 23 and 31, and is involved in spatial orientation (Olson et al, 1996; Sugiura et al, 2005). PCC can be further subdivided into a dorsal (dPCC) and a ventral (vPCC) part. Layers II, III, and V of vPCC are densely populated and contain larger pyramids than those of dPCC (Vogt et al, 2005, 2006).


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The corpus callosum connects the left with the right hemisphere in the developing nervous system. In the mouse, it consists of approximately 3 million myelinated fibers that link corresponding regions of the cortices. More that 50 human genetic aberrations have been described that lead to some form of dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. Two populations of midline glia, the indusium griseum and the glial wedge, are necessary for the adequate guidance of axons in this process. The emerging glial structures construct a transient bridge of astrocytes that connects the left with the right hemisphere of the developing telencephalon. This glial bridge, also called the glial sling, supports the reciprocal growth of cortical axons, and the experimental interruption of the sling leads to the formation of acallosal mice. In this situation, the cortical connecting axons role up on either side of the cerebral midline and form the bundles of Probst, longitudinal fascicles of misdirected axons. Growth promotion of cortical axons can be restored by the implantation of nitrocellulose filters that are covered with embryonic astrocytes-derived membranes. The blueprint hypothesis of axon growth states that channels walled by astrocyte surfaces might provide a mechanical growth and guidance substrate for growth cones. Molecular specializations of both growth cone and astrocyte surfaces are presumably implicated in the regulation of these interactions.


At this level, it is not possible to differentiate areas 23a and 23b due to the dysgranular nature of this cortex (Vogt and Laureys, 2006). Caudally in area 23a, layer IV becomes more pronounced and, although a layer Va is present, the number of large neurons in it is surprisingly low. One of the key differences between areas 23a and 23b is that the latter area has a significantly greater number of neurons in layer Va (Figure 25/19). The greatest number of NFP-ir neurons in area 23a is in layer IIIc that is in striking contrast to area 30 where most are in layer IIIab. A moderate population of large neurons in layer Va also expresses NFP-ir and there is a fine mesh of NFP-ir dendrites throughout deep layer V and layer VI. As is the case for area 30, at caudal levels of area 23a there is a greater overall dispersion of NFP-ir neurons and dendrites that also includes some in layers II and IIIab.

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This flat map is accurate above the corpus callosum where intersection distances are maintained, although sections were extended dorsally to open the cingulate and callosal sulci. However, it is distorted rostral and caudal to the corpus callosum due to the flattening process (Vogt, 2021, 2021). It can be used to analyze information from imaging studies by coregistering the corpus callosum in length and orientation with the double red arrow. The splenium was reoriented ventrally at the small dots to show the RSC areas in the callosal sulcus. For simplification the “a,” “b,” and “c” divisions of each area are not shown.

Area 33 is in the depths of the callosal sulcus and has been referred to as the pregenual area (Brodmann, 1909) or ectogenual cortex (Braak, 1979a). This region does not end below the genu, but continues along the full caudal extent of area 25. Area 33 is the least differentiated of any cingulate area. Layers II–III are broad and poorly differentiated, whereas layer V has a few large pyramids, and layer VI is almost non-existent.


Human imaging has been plagued by mislocalizing RSC due mainly to Talairach and Tournoux's (1988) interpretation of Brodmann's map. While the latter map implied that RSC is in the cas, the former authors extended areas 29 and 30 onto the gyral surface caudal to the splenium.

Afferent fibers to area 25 of non-human primates have been demonstrated from the pole of the temporal lobe (Pandya and Kuypers, 1969) and from areas 7, 21, and 22 (Jones and Powell, 1970). Areas 25, 32, and 24 are interconnected by fibers running tangentially in the molecular layer (Gerebtzoff, 1939; Glees et al, 1950). A further intracingulate connection exists between area 25 and the posterior cingulate cortex, including the retrosplenial region (Showers, 1959). Reciprocal connections have also been described between the prefrontal areas, the posterior cingulate cortex, and the posterior parietal gyri (Vogt et al, 1987).


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The red arrow is the hypothesized border between the two divisions and the red line marks the boundary in the histological sections. The dorsal and ventral parts of area 32 differ in all cellular layers.

Area 32 shows fully differentiated isocortical structure. Area 24 represents the proisocortical part with a dorsal area medioradiata (MR) and a ventrally adjoining area infraradiata dorsalis (IRd) (for subdivisions of area 24, see Figure 23/5 and Chapter 25). According to Stephan (1975) the rostral part of the periarchicortex is subdivided into an area infraradiata ventralis (area 33 as a rostral prolongation of the taenia tecta) in the sulcus corporis callosi, and an area subgenualis (area 25) accompanying the precommissural hippocampus. The common architectural feature of the periarchicortical areas 25 and 33 is their reduced laminar differentiation.

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At the level of extrinsic connections, it was noted above that corticospinal projections arise from areas in the pACC in rat rather than in the MCC as in monkey. Also, the primary and secondary visual cortices have major and reciprocal connections with area 29 in rat; however, these do not exist in monkey (Vogt and Pandya, 1987). At the cellular level, even though granular area 29 in rat has a similar counterpart in the monkey, they are not cytologically equivalent. Indeed, the fusiform and extraverted pyramids in rat layers II and III in area 29 have not been observed in monkey (Vogt, 1976; Vogt and Peters, 1981). Finally, at the receptor expression level, presynaptic heteroreceptor organization appears to be different. The presynaptic M2 binding in layers Ia and IV that is so clear in rat has not been observed in monkey (Vogt et al, 1997) where layer I has little dendritic arborization and only weak overall binding for many transmitter receptors due to the presence of a myelin-rich fiber tract passing through layer I (taenia tecta).